B) for the current period of a fiscal year

c) over previous three years

4.2.The statement of cash flows provides information which … .

a) is available in either an income statement or a balance sheet

b) is not available in either an income statement or a balance sheet

c) is available only in an income statement

4.3. The income statement … being called dividends

a) summarizes withdrawal of assets

b) includes withdrawal of assets

c) excludes the withdrawal of assets

4.4. The separate statement of retained earnings and stockholder's equity shows …

a) the company's management what has happened to their ownership in

the company

b) investors what has happened to their ownership in the company

c) tax departments what has happened to the company

4.5. Being prepared for the use of management, the financial statements contain …

a) neither debit nor credit columns

b) either debit or credit columns

c) neither revenues nor expenses columns

ВАРИАНТ № 3

I. Выберите правильный ответ, обращая внимание на видовременную форму и залог сказуемого, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.1. Sales … not … at the moment.

a) have … increased

b) are … increasing

c) are … increased

1.2. Russia’s work on setting up the Federal Treasury … in 1993.

a) was beginning

b) was begun

c) begins

1.3. We … already … a pilot project for training employees for the Treasury

agencies.

a) are … starting

b) were … started

c) have … started

1.4. Economics … society’s production and consumption levels.

a) analyzes

b) are analyzing

c) analyzed

1.5. Our proposals … by the Board of Directors next week.

a) are discussed

b) will be discussing

c) will be discussed

II. Выберите правильный ответ, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

2.1. When I was area manager, I … visit five customers a day.

a) could

b) were able to

c) am to

2.2. Proposals are usually accepted with an absolute majority, so we … reject a

proposal without presenting it to the Meeting.

a) needn’t

b) mustn’t

c) wasn’t allowed to

2.3. We have no idea what … happen to their next delivery.

a) ought to

b) had to

c) can

2.4. Firms … increase efficiency of labour for obtaining higher profits.

a) was able to

b) have to

c) is allowed to

2.5. Government regulations … be in the interests of society.



a) has to

b) are allowed to

c) should

III. Выпишите предложения, в которых причастие II является определением, и переведите их на русский язык.

3.1. The demanded quality of a particular good varies with different individuals and

consumer groups.

3.2. The company has made a decision to start producing new machines.

3.3. Supply restrictions imposed by cartels are as characteristic of industrialized

economies as of developing economies.

3.4. In our modern complex economy, the producer often decides for himself what

goods and services should be offered to consumers.

3.5. The living standards of population as seen from the table is rather low.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст, затем выполните тест по тексту:

STRATEGIC PLANNING

New products strategy has four purposes. First is to focus team effort. People involved in new products projects suffer many diversions — other projects, emergencies, customer problems, and so on. With today’s pressure on product innovators to speed up the process, focus is critical.

Second, strategy brings about integration. Scores or hundreds of people are involved in any project, each with their own agenda and departmental pressures. New project managers are expected to make the group work as a team, consistently, and with synergy, not divisiveness. But managers can’t be in all places at all times. Strategy statements can be, and they help. If new product strategy is not offered, individuals make up their own.

Third, strategy is a tool of delegation. All players can not be checked by the new products manager every time they make a decision or spend some money. So, strategy lets them operate independently, effectively, and efficiently while still integrated with the rest of the team.



Fourth, preparing strategy requires proactive management, not reactive. If it is necessary to state what a project’s focus will be, chances are, the investigation of the opportunities will be more thorough. And, if the strategic statement must include all critical guidelines, then its author had to study the selected opportunity thoroughly. In other words, having to write out strategy helps create better managers.

Though these purposes sound rather academic, the unique nature of the new products process makes them real. Let’s look in on a team of people developing a small, portable computer printer. One member is thinking of using a new battery-based technology, while another team member is concentrating on potential customers who work in environments where wall plugs are available! One department plans to pretest the product extensively, while another department assumes time is critical and is building finished production capability from the beginning! And the team is being guided by requests from the sales department, which is currently calling on smaller firms although, in fact, the biggest potential may be in large firms (or governments, or schools)! This team has not developed strategy.

ТЕСТ ПО ТЕКСТУ

Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения на русский язык.

4.1. People involved in new products projects … .

a) suffer many diversity

B) suffer many diversions

c) suffer many disturbance

4.2. If new product strategy is not offered, … preparing strategy requires proactive

management

a) individuals apply to the office manager

b) individuals do not know what to do

c) individuals make up their own

4.3. Strategy lets all members … while still integrated with the rest of the team.

a) operate independently and efficiently

b) operate independently and inefficiently

c) operate independently and inexactly

4.4. The author of strategic statement had to … .

a) test the selected opportunity thoroughly

b) study the selected opportunity thoroughly

c) establish the selected opportunity

4.5. The unique nature of the new products process … .

a) makes them competitive

b) makes them cheaper

c) makes them real

ВАРИАНТ № 4

I. Выберите правильный ответ, обращая внимание на видовременную форму и залог сказуемого, и переведите предложения на русский язык.

1.1. A team of accountants … now at bringing the company’s accounts to a

balance.

a) works

b) is working

c) will be working

1.2. Specialists say that one day all the data of invoices, shipping documents and

other documents … in computer form.

a) will be provided

b) will provide

c) are provided

1.3. Yesterday we … your account with 200 US dollars.

a) were credited

b) have credited

c) credited

1.4. Bonds … for a fixed period, usually from 15 years up.

a) issued

b) are issued

c) are issuing

1.5. Turnover … by 5 per cent this year.

a) had increased

b) is increasing

c) has increased

II. Выберите правильный ответ, обращая внимание на модальные глаголы и их эквиваленты. Переведите предложения на русский язык.

2.1. Usually importers … first obtain an import licence.

a) may

b) was to

c) must

2.2. After financial crises the government … take special decisions to achieve a

balanced economy.

a) will have to

b) may

c) was allowed to

2.3. If prices change, the consumer … change the quantities demanded if he

wants to maintain his budget at the same level.

a) was able to

b) will have to

c) has to

2.4. Everyone … find himself in one of the situations: employed, or

unemployed, or out of the labour force.

a) has to

b) can

c) are able to

2.5. Our enterprise is too big we … locate it in the city centre.

a) will not be able to

b) couldn’t

c) were not allowed to

III. Выпишите предложения, в которых причастие I является определением, и переведите их на русский язык.

3.1. An increasing concern has been expressed about the continued growth in world

population.

3.2. The unemployment is growing too rapidly for labour markets to be in

equilibrium.

3.3. Varying input, the firm can vary output.

3.4. People working in their own businesses should calculate the cost of their own

time spent in running the business.

3.5. The dollar is constantly fluctuating.

IV. Прочитайте и устно переведите текст, затем выполните тест по тексту:

MANAGEMENT

Management is the art of getting things done through other people. It includes the personnel who have the right to make decisions that influence company's affairs.

The main thing is to get a result. In summary, a manager is anyone, at any level of the organization, who directs the efforts of other people wherever a group of people work together to achieve results, a manager is usually present. A manager is the catalyst who makes things happen.

There are three management levels: top management, middle management and operating management. Top management includes the president, vice presidents, and the general manager. Middle management includes department managers and plant managers. Middle managers are managers above the supervisory level but subordinate to the firm's most senior executives. Operating management includes supervisors, foremen, etc. Operating managers are persons who directly oversee the efforts of those who actually perform the work.

The most important responsibility of any manager is decision making. Most of the decisions are made by middle management. Top executives provide cross-communication throughout the company. They work out the overall strategy and make main decisions. Successful management is a skill of choosing from alternatives.

Decision makings are divided into: recognizing the problem, defining and analyzing the problem, evaluating alternative solutions, choosing the most favourable solution and implementing the approach chosen.

Management functions are planning, organizing, directing, controlling, staffing and innovating. It should be noted that successful management is based on three basic elements: leadership, motivation and communication.

To operate a successful business one should have management skills
because effective management is the key to business success. In a result-oriented management the main aim is not to issue instructions but to get results. That is why a manager’s pay should be linked to the performance of the enterprise where he works. If the result is poor for a few months running a manager must leave his office. New people should come instead. It will be a natural selection of a managerial staff when people with better knowledge, more expertise and truly original thinking will come to management.

ТЕСТ ПО ТЕКСТУ

Выберите правильный ответ и переведите предложения на русский язык.

4.1. What kind of managers does middle management include?

a) General manager and supervisors


2184844375843682.html
2184867423987227.html
    PR.RU™